Trillium Ridge Flora and Fauna
Plants - 118 species
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White Pine
Pinus strobus
Five in front yard; one north side by kitchen window
The Eastern White Pine has the distinction of being the tallest tree in eastern North America. White pine forests originally covered much of northeastern North America, though only one percent of the original trees remain untouched by extensive logging operations in the 1700s and 1800s. Second link shows the planting of our 'pine forest'.
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Mugo Pine
Pinus mugo
By driveway, but about to move.
Mugo Pine is a high-altitude European pine, found in the Pyrenees, Alps, Erzgebirge, Carpathians, northern Apennines and Balkan Peninsula mountains. An old name for the species Pinus montana is still occasionally seen, and a typographical error "mugho" (first made in a prominent 18th century encyclopedia) is still repeated surprisingly often. Widely used in landscaping in US.
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Colorado Blue Spruce
Picea pungens
North edge, midway
Vbrant silver-blue, blue, or blue-green needles are the highlight and near-uniqueness of this stately, upright pyramidal evergreen tree. Maturing at 50' tall by 20' wide. Oldest known specimen is 600 years old.
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Norway Spruce
Picea abies
North edge, front - 2 specimens
The Norway Spruce grows throughout Europe from Norway in the northwest and Poland eastward, and also in the mountains of central Europe, southwest to the western end of the Alps, and southeast in the Carpathians and Balkans to the extreme north of Greece.
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Dwarf Alberta Spruce
Picea glauca
back yard, south side by fence
Dwarf Alberta Spruce is a naturally occurring dwarf form of the alberta white spruce. Dwarf Alberta spruce trees may eventually reach 12' in height, but only over a long period of time (growing just 2"-4" per year). They have a classic "Christmas tree" shape. The green needles have a tight, densely-packed growth habit that gives dwarf Alberta spruce trees a "fuzzy" look.
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Canadian Yew
Taxus canadensis
North edge, with white pine and blue spruce (7)
A conifer native to central and eastern North America, thriving in swampy woods, ravines, riverbanks and on lake shores. Locally called simply "Yew", this species is also referred to as American Yew or Ground-hemlock. Most of its range is well north of the Ohio River. The seeds are eaten by thrushes, waxwings and other birds, which disperse the hard seeds undamaged in their droppings.
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Thuja Green Giant
(Hybrid) Thuja plicata/standishii
North side front yard property line screen
Thuja Green Giant Arborvitae is a rare Hybrid cross between: Thuja plicata (Western Red Cedar) Thuja standishii (Japanese Arborvitae)
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Golden Alexander
Zizia aurea
This lovely native of the eastern U.S. offers delicate, lemon-yellow broccoli-like flowers in late spring to early summer. Flowers last for weeks. Plants grow to about 2 feet tall and half as wide.
Rattlesnake Master
Eryngium yuccifolium
Front meadow north end by bench; Central front bed; sw prairie
from Minnesota east to Ohio and south to Texas and Florida.
A common herbaceous perennial plant, native to the tallgrass prairies of central and eastern North America. In the past, the dried seedheads of Rattlesnake Master were used as rattles by Amerindians. Pioneers thought the roots could be used as an effective antidote to rattlesnake bite, hence the common name of this plant. However, this belief was erroneous.This is a very odd member of the Carrot family that resembles a yucca or some other desert plant. However, it is a true tallgrass prairie species with a unique appearance.
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Calico Aster
Aster lateriflorus
several spots along driveway
Brighten up the fall woodland garden with the unique flowers of this fine Aster. A myriad of white blooms with maroon and yellow centers cover the two to three foot tall stems in autumn. Flowers for an extended period, often right up to the first frost. Prefers well-drained soils, in partial to full shade. Add Calico Aster to woodland edges and open woodlands for a burst of late season color!
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Silphium perfoliatum
Front meadow
This is the single best species that you can plant for the birds. It provides food,water and cover, three of the main requirements for good avian habitat.The large leaves clasp the square stems to form little cups, hence its name.These cups catch and store rainwater, often for many days. Birds and butterflies come for a drink and hummingbirds regularly visit our plants at the nursery. In fall, goldfinches descend upon the plants to devour the seeds. Plant in groups of three to five to create a three to ten foot tall bird haven. Occurs naturally in moist environments, but does perfectly well when planted in fertile medium soils, in full sun to partial shade. Give it plenty of room to spread out, as it does self-sow readily on open soil.
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Prairie dock
Silphium terebinthinaceum
Western meadow
Prairie dock belongs to the Aster (Asteraceae) family and has clusters of large, sandpapery, spade-shaped basal leaves up to 16 inches long. The flower heads are in an open cluster at the top of a smooth, shiny, nearly leafless 2 to 10 foot tall stalk. Each individually stalked flower head is 2 to 3 inches wide with several broad, shiny, green, rounded bracts and 12 to 25 yellow, petal-like ray flowers with notched tips surrounding yellow disk flowers. Prairie dock is drought-resistant and is a long-lived perennial with a fragrant, resinous sap. Prairie dock blooms summer to fall and is found in deep-soil and loamy prairies in the eastern half of the tallgrass region, but rare or absent from western Missouri westward. Prairie dock is among the tallest and largest-leaved of the prairie plants. In open prairies, the leaves of Prairie dock often orient themselves along a north-south axis to minimize heat load.
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Compass plant
Silphium laciniatum
Western meadow, southwest meadow
This is a typical plant of black soil prairies in the tallgrass region.
A mature specimen of this native perennial plant ranges from 6-12' tall. They resemble wild sunflowers in overall size, shape, and structure. A large central taproot can extend 15 ft. into the ground. A resinous substance is produced by the upper stem when the plant is blooming. This plant can live up to 100 years.
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Sweet Joe Pye Weed
Eupatorium purpureum 
south fenceline midway; also under hickories at woods edge
This is one of the few woodland plants that attracts butterflies in droves! The large pink flowers appear in late summer and early fall, and are much sought after by Monarchs, Swallowtails and numerous other butterflies.The highly textured leaves are attractive all summer long. Grows four to six feet tall in rich, medium soil.Very versatile, it thrives in shaded woodlands or full sun and makes an excellent garden plant.
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Spotted Joe Pye weed
Eupatorium maculatum 
Rain garden @ nw corner
From Missouri east to the Atlantic Ocean and as far north as Ontario and Quebec south to Kentucky.
Eupatorium: from Greek name Mithridates Eupator, King of Pontus about 115BC who is said to have discovered an antidote to a commonly used poison in one of the species. At home in wetlands in the wild, spotted Joe-Pye weeds are a good choice when you need plants for wet soils. They attracts butterflies, including tiger swallowtails and black swallowtails. Prefers moist soil. Tolerates inundation up to a depth of 6 inches early in the season, as in damp meadows, open marshes, and fens. Tolerates flooding for short periods in the spring. 4-6 ft
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Black eyed susan
Rudbeckia hirta
Western meadow
Photo is mix of several prairie flowers in our western meadow's first year. Black and brown-eyed susans, prairies dock, compass plant…
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Brown eyed susan
Rudbeckia triloba
western meadow, north meadow in back
Photo is mix of several prairie flowers in our western meadow's first year. Black and brown-eyed susans, prairies dock, compass plant…
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Pale purple coneflower
Echinacea pallida
Western meadow
A robust, drought tolerant perennial, native to the midwestern and southeastern United States.
Purple coneflower
Echinacea purpurea
Western meadow
A robust, drought tolerant perennial, native to the midwestern and southeastern United States.
Narrow-leaved purple coneflower
Echinacea angustifolia
Western meadow
A robust, drought tolerant perennial, native to the midwestern and southeastern United States.
Yellow coneflower
Echinacea paradoxa
Western meadow
A robust, drought tolerant perennial, native to the midwestern and southeastern United States.
Balsam ragwort
Packera paupercula
North meadow back yard
Another of the silent auction acquisitions.
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White Snakeroot
Ageratina altissima
Woods, sw meadow
eastern N,. America
Plants are found in woods and brush thickets where they bloom mid to late summer or fall. The flowers are a clean white color and after blooming small seeds with fluffy white tails are released to blow in the wind. Contains the toxin tremetol; tremetol poisoning is also called milk sickness, as humans often ingested the toxin by drinking the milk of cows who had eaten snakeroot. It was the cause of death of Nancy Hanks, mother of Abraham Lincoln.
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Japanese Spurge
Pachysandra terminalis
North side under white pine
A dense, lustrous evergreen, trailing vine-type of ground cover, white flowers, spring.
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Fire pink
Silene virginica
central bed in front
Fire Pink grows in open woods and rocky deciduous slopes in eastern North America, ranging as far north as extreme southern Ontario.
Fire pink is protected as a state endangered species in Wisconsin and Florida, and as a state threatened species in Michigan. Fire Pink's principal pollinator is the Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris), which is attracted by the flowers bright red petals and sugary nectar.
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Rhododendron 'Rosem Elegans'
By front porch
(Cultivar). Rhododendrons are ornamental, acidic-soil loving broad-leaf evergreens. They grow best in partial shade. Rhododendron 'Roseum Elegans', produces stunning lilac pink flowers in numerous rounded trusses on a vigorous, upright and spreading shrub.
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Azalea Sp?
Rhododendron Pentanthera
By front porch
Azaleas are flowering shrubs making up part of the genus Rhododendron. Originally azaleas were classed as a different genus of plant, but now they are recognised as two of the eight sub-genera of rhododendrons - subgenus Pentanthera (deciduous), and subgenus Tsutsuji (evergreen).
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Shooting star
Dodecatheon meadia
Front, by altheas
This is one of the most beautiful spring wildflowers in the prairie. A colony of these plants in bloom is a sight not to be missed. Early pioneers called this plant 'Prairie Pointers. 'Shooting Star occurs in the majority of counties in Illinois (see Distribution Map). This plant is occasional to locally common in highClose-Up of Basal Leaves quality habitats, otherwise it is rare or absent. Habitats include moist to slightly dry black soil prairies, hill prairies, openings in rocky upland forests, limestone glades, bluffs along major rivers, fens, and abandoned fields.
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Garden Phlox
Phlox paniculata

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Moss Phlox
Phlox subulata
Rock gardens astride driveway
A perennial creeper growing to a height of 6 inches and covering a 20 inch wide area. The small, five-petaled flowers bloom in rose, mauve, blue, white, or pink in late spring to early summer.
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Cream False Indigo
Baptisia bracteata
Woods edge
This diminutive member of the Indigo group is treasured for its gorgeous clusters of lush cream flowers.The blooming of Cream False Indigo in midspring is a much-anticipated event at Prairie Nursery. Low-growing and compact, it creates a stunning effect when planted in large prairie meadows or small prairie gardens. Slow-growing and very long-lived, some plants at our nursery are nearly 30 years old! Grows in almost any well-drained soil. Does beautifully in full sun or light shade.
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White Wild Indigo
Baptisia lactea
Front meadow
This long-lived member of the Pea Family practically jumps out of the ground in spring.A well-established mature plant resembles an asparagus plant when it first appears and grows to five feet tall in a matter of days.Very striking, with cones of vivid white flowers that are visible far across the prairie landscape in June and July.The smooth bluegreen leaves are attractive all summer long.This slow-growing beauty is also one of the longest lived of all prairie plants.Transplants may require two years or more to reach maturity, while seeds can take four to five years.Worth waiting for, it is a real showpiece when in bloom! Grows on moderately-moist to semi-dry soils.Tolerates partial shade, but prefers full sun.
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Wild Senna
Cassia hebecarpa 
Bunches of butter-yellow flowers appear in July and August on the robust stems, reaching up to six feet tall.The attractive foliage is borne in large leaflets, typical of the Pea Family to which it belongs.The brown seedpods add interest in the fall and winter and are utilized by birds and other wildlife. Give this guy some room to spread out and it will repay you with an exuberance of foliage and blooms. Particularly fond of clay, it does well in medium to damp soils.Will tolerate periodic flooding.
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Common milkweed
Asclepias syriaca
Southwest corner meadow; along drainage ditch
This species is native to most of North America east of the Rocky Mountains, excluding the drier parts of the Prairies. It grows in sandy soils and appreciates lots of sunlight. It was one of the earliest North American species described in Cornut's 1635 Canadensium plantarum historia. Failed attempts have been made to exploit rubber (from the latex) and fiber (from the seed's floss) production from the plant industrially. The floss was nonetheless used for stuffing and it has been found to be hypoallergenic. The plant has also been explored for commercial use of its bast (inner bark) fiber which is both strong and soft. Both the bast fiber and the floss were used historically by Native Americans for cordage and textiles. Milkweed oil from the seeds can be easily converted into cinamic acid which is a very potent sunscreen when used at a 1-5% concentration.
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Butterfly weed
Asclepias tuberosa
Front meadow
An extremely hardy, long-lived perennial native to North America. The magnificent bright orange flowers are concentrated in compact clusters at the top of branching stems. The flowers produce a large quantity of nectar which attracts butterflies throughout the growing season.
Marsh milkweed
Asclepias incarnata,
North meadow back yard
One of the plants we bought in the Conservation Foundation silent auction. This species is cultivated frequently, especially in gardens designed to attract butterflies. The nectar of the plant attracts many other species of butterflies and insects as well.
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Wild Geranium
Geranium maculatum
woods, meados
Wild Geranium is popular not only for its lovely lavender spring blooms, but also for its ruggedness and versatility. An excellent garden plant, it retains its attractive foliage all season long, unusual for a spring-blooming flower. Reaching one to two feet tall, it multiplies to form nice clumps. Grows in sun to shade, in dry and medium soil. Also thrives in full sun in a rich soil.
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butterfly bush
Buddleia davidii
north west corner hedge
fragrant blooms occur heavily from July through August, and continue abundantly until frost, and attracting many bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds (id tentative; need to check species)
Allegheny monkeyflower
Mimulus ringens
Rain garden @ nw corner
Eastern and central US and Canada
1-3 ft, june-sept blooming. Best naturalized in moist to wet soils in water gardens, bog gardens, wet meadows, water margins or low spots. May be grown in moist soils in borders as long as soils do not dry out. upright perennial which typically occurs in swampy areas, wet meadows, pond/streambanks and low woods. Typically grows 1-3' tall on erect, square, sometimes branching stems. Features lilac-purple, snapdragon-like flowers with two-lipped, open-mouthed corollas. Each flower purportedly resembles the face of a smiling monkey when squeezed.
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Viola odorata
in lawn, largely near serviceberry
These form a carpet of purple and white in spring, survive year to year in lawn, not bothered by the occasional application of weed killer when the dandelions get out of hand
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Cat mint (catnip)
Nepeta cataria
Western meadow. Anybody want some? It is aggressive!
Attractive gray-green, oval leaves form mounds up to 2 feet high. Flowers are lavender-blue with purple spots, held in loose spikes. This is an aromatic plant which is adored by cats. As with many other herbs, this is a nice companion plant with roses. As will all members of the mint family, this is a vigorous, spreading plant.
Wild bergamot
Monarda fistulosa
North meadow back yard
One of the plants we bought in the Conservation Foundation silent auction. Wild Bergamot or Beebalm, is a pleasantly scented member of the mint family growing up to 5 feet tall with rose-purple to lavender flowers.
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Obedient Plant
Physostegia virginiana
Rain Garden, NW corner
Obedient plant is a stiffly erect perennial that grows from creeping rhizomes. The pale lavender-pink flowers are borne in showy spikes atop 2-4 ft (0.6-0.9 m) stalks in late summer and fall. Obedient plant is native to eastern North America from Quebec to Manitoba, and south to Texas, Louisiana, Alabama and Georgia. Obedient plant occurs in swamps, streambanks, ditches, seepages, damp meadows and prairies, moist open woodlands, bogs, and pine savannas.
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Forsythia 'Northern gold'
Forsythia sp cultivar
northwest corner bird hedge
The forsythia bush is a beautiful landscape shrub that grows into a hedge with naturally developing arching stems. Forsythia bushes are one of the earliest spring flowering plants. The blooms of the forsythia bush are a spectacular yellow or pink, depending on the cultivar, and resemble little bells.
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Blue vervain
verbena hastata
Rain garden @ nw corner
Native in lower 48 and canada
This is a slender, but erect, native perennial plant that is up to 5' tall. The flowers are often a pretty blue or violet, but they are quite small. Blue Vervain is easy to identify because it is the only vervain with elegant spikes of flowers in this color range. Various songbirds occasionally eat the seeds, including the Cardinal, Swamp Sparrow, Field Sparrow, Song Sparrow, and Slate-Colored Junco (during the winter). The soil should consist of a fertile loam or wet muck. This plant tolerates standing water, if it is temporary. This is a good plant to locate near a small river or pond in a sunny location.
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Labrador Violet
Viola labradorica
Along drive & around front central bed
Labrador Violet or Alpine Violet is an evergreen running herb. It is found in cold places such as Greenland and eastern Canada, including Labrador in Newfoundland and Labrador. The plant has smokey-purple and dark green leaves. The flowers are a rich lavender colour.
Labrador Violet
Viola labradorica
around edges of coprolite bed
A leafy-stemmed violet, this perennial is 4-6 in. tall, with dainty, pale blue or purple flowers. The leaves have small, rounded teeth. Each plant usually has two to four flowering stalks. A low plant with leaves and light bluish-violet flowers on same stalk.
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Rose of Sharon
Hibiscus syriacus
Front, south, by big bluestem
(exotic) Rose of Sharon, Hibiscus syriacus, isn't a rose, but its large, flat blossoms and nectar attract hummingbirds and tiny insects that hummers also eat. The flowers on this woody shrub come in several colors, including white, pink, purple, and red.
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Serviceberry sp?
Amelanchier (laevis? Species tbd)
Back, by red oaks
Amelanchier, also known as shadbush, serviceberry, sarvisberry, juneberry, Saskatoon, shadblow, shadwood, sugarplum, and wild-plum, is a genus of about 20 species of shrubs and small deciduous trees in the Rosaceae (Rose family)
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Black Cherry
Prunus serotina
Scattered in woods, mostlly near western edge. One near the two young hickories makes a spectacular display in fall
The Black Cherry is a pioneer species. In the Midwest, it is seen growing mostly in old fields with other sunlight loving species, such as Black Walnut, Black locust, and Hackberry. It is a moderately long-lived tree, with ages of up to 258 years known. The fruit is suitable for making jam, cherry pies and has some use in flavoring liqueurs; they are also a popular flavoring for sodas and used in many ice creams. The timber is valuable, perhaps the premier cabinetry timber of the U.S., traded as "cherry". It is known for its strong red color and high price.
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Fort Sheridan Hawthorn
Crataegus sp
One specimen in the woods just east of the red oaks.
Crataegus species are shrubs or small trees, mostly growing to 5–15 metres (16–49 ft) tall,[4] with small pome fruit and (usually) thorny branches.
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Filipendula rubra
Front meadow by ditch
Its native range extends from the Eastern to the Central United States, and grows in a wide range of shady and moist habitats.
This native perennial plant is unbranched and about 3-6' tall. The central stem is smooth and sometimes reddish. Each flower is about 1/3" across, consisting of 5 pink petals and numerous long white stamens with pink anthers. The overall appearance of the inflorescence resembles wind-tossed fluff or foam, and is quite beautiful. Queen-of-the-Prairie tends to form colonies under moist conditions.
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Maple Leaved Alum Root
Heuchera villosa
south edge under norway maples in front, also by red maple in back
Heuchera villosa 'Atropurpurea'combines burgundy foliage with stalks of long-blooming white flowers. This is one of the best plants for the woodland garden! Native to the Appalachian Mountains, this natural variation of the species is one of the largest of all the Alum Roots, with leaves up to a foot across. Grows one to two feet tall in rich, well-drained to slightly damp soil with good humus content. Blooms during the heat of August when most other woodland wildflowers are long gone.
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Ditch Stonecrop
Penthorum sedoides
ditch - where else? Nw corner in drainage ditch
Ditch Stonecrop is fairly common and occurs in every county of Illinois. Habitats include openings in floodplain forests, swamps, marshes, muddy shores along rivers or ponds, and ditches along roadsides and railroads. The flowers are more or less green and not very showy while in bloom, but later the developing seed capsules turn red during the fall.
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New Jersey tea
Ceanothus americanus
Front meadow, south meadow (big bluestem)
Habitats include mesic to dry black soil prairies, gravel prairies, hill prairies, Black Oak savannas, rocky upland forests, limestone glades, and barrens with stunted trees.
This low-growing, incredibly durable shrub is covered with clusters of bright white flowers in July and early August.The luxuriant, glossy leaves maintain their appearance all season long. Each plant grows two to three feet tall, with a diameter of up to three feet. Install plants two to three feet apart to create a low growing native hedge.The colonists used the leaves during the Revolutionary War as a substitute for regular tea following the Boston Tea Party, hence the name. Hummingbirds, being the predators that they are, will visit this plant regularly to eat the tiny insects that pollinate the flowers. Slow-growing, New Jersey Tea’s life span is measured in decades. Grows in almost any well-drained soil, in full sun or light shade
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Norway Maple
Acer platanoides
Front yard by porch
A deciduous tree growing to 20-30 m tall with a trunk up to 1.5 m diameter, and a broad, rounded crown, native to eastern and central Europe and southwest Asia. Generally considered invasive.
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Acer negundo
Woods - scattered, mostly at edges
Acer negundo is a small, usually fast-growing and fairly short-lived tree that grows up to 10-25 m tall, with a trunk diameter of 30-50 cm, rarely up to 1 m diameter. It often has several trunks and can form impenetrable thickets. The Boxelder Bug lays its eggs on all maples, but prefers this species (we have a colony of boxelder bugs that appears each spring).
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Red Maple
Acer rubrum
South side back yard
One of the most common and widespread deciduous trees of eastern North America. Iours is a really snaggly specimen crowded under the neighbor's elm. But it is beautiful in fall, and the woodpeckers like its many dead branches.
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Silver maple
Acer saccharinum
Front; north side
Acer saccharinum, known as the silver maple is a species of maple native to eastern North America in the eastern United States and adjacent parts of southeast Canada. It is one of the most common trees in the United States.
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White oak
Quercus alba
Back third - ~24 specimens
Eastern US
White oak can grow very large and live 3 to 5 centuries. It is a useful tree, producing edible acorns, (soak them first to wash out tannins), preferred by turkey and deer. The wood is used for "tight cooperage" and was used for whiskey barrels.
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Bur oak
Quercus macrocarpa
South edge opposite red oaks - 2 specimens
The Bur Oak, sometimes spelled Burr Oak, is a species of oak in the white oak section, native to North America in the eastern and midwestern United States and south-central Canada. This plant is also called Mossycup oak and Mossycup white oak.
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Northern red oak
Quercus rubra
North edge, midway, two specimens
Widespread throughout Eastern U.S.
Red oak acorns are at the top of the food preference list for blue jays, wild turkeys, squirrels, small rodents, whitetail deer, raccoons, and black bears. Deer also browse the buds and twigs in wintertime.
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Pignut Hickory
Carya glabra
One large by north fence in woods; two younger at edge of woods. The woods are an "oak-hickory savannah."
Hickory wood is extremely tough, yet flexible, and is valued for tool handles, bows (like yew), wheel spokes, carts, drumsticks, lacrosse stick handles, golf club shafts (sometimes still called hickory stick, even though made of steel or graphite), the bottom of skis, walking sticks and for punitive use as a switch (like hazel), and especially as a cane-like hickory stick in schools. And is it ever tough! Splitting it into firewood is an adventure.
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Sweet Fern
Comptonia peregrina
On hill north side of driveway
US east of Mississippi R. south to Tn/NC
A small, aromatic mound-shaped shrub (not a fern) 2-4 ft. tall, occuring in dense colonies. Multiple stems with loose, spreading branches. Long, narrow, olive-green leaves, the edges of which have rolled back edges and rounded, fern-like division. Flowers are brown catkins that appear before the leaves unfold. A small nut is enclosed in a bur-like husk.
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Penstemon sp
North meadow back yard
One of the plants we bought in the Conservation Foundation silent auction. Penstemons are among the most attractive native flowers of North America,
Small's penstemon
Penstemon smallii
Front central bed
Southeast US

Southeast US
White turtlehead
Chelone glabra
Rain garden @ nw corner near bench
Its native range extends from Georgia to Newfoundland and Labrador and from Mississippi to Manitoba.
Chelone (rhymes with "baloney") was a nymph in Greek mythology who insulted the gods by ridiculing or not attending (versions vary) the marriage of Zeus to Hera. The gods punished her by turning her into a turtle. Found along streambanks and wet low lying areas. Flowers are set in a cluster at the top of the stem. The blooms are tubed shaped with 2 "lips" with the top one overlapping the lower. Soil type; wet, sandy muck. 1-3 ft tall. Blooms july-aug. The flowers are white, borne in late summer and early fall. It can be used as a method of birth control, as used by Abenaki people. It is a food plant for the Macrophya nigra sawfly. Sawflies are a suborder of Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, bees and ants). They look more like flies than wasps, due to the thick "waist." Their larvae look and act like caterpillars. They date to the triassic period and are precursors to the bees, wasps, and ants. We look forward to spotting some on our turtlehead and adding them to Trillium Ridge's population index!
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Jack in the pulpit
Arisaema triphyllum
Jack-in-the-pulpit is common to abundant throughout Illinois in open and dense, moist woods and may be seen also in woods clearings and occasionally in pastures and at the edges of pastures that were formerly woodland. Though commonly regarded as an early spring plant, it persists through the growing season and is conspicuous in late summer and fall by its dense clusters of red berries.
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Culver's Root
Veronicastrum virginicum
along south fence w/Joe pye
A most stately and distinctive plant, Culver’s Root is prized for its well-defined, clean lines. Elegant white flowerstalks rise like spires above the whorls of deep green leaves in July and August. Growing three to six feet tall, it creates a unique vertical accent when planted with other prairie plants or perennials. Fantastic when planted in “White Gardens” and “Moon Gardens” with other white flowering prairie plants.Grows best in medium to moist rich soil, in full sun to shade.
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Podophyllum peltatum
Despite the common name mayapple, it is the flower that appears in early May, not the "apple", which appears later during the summer. The Mayapple is also called the Hogapple, Indian apple, Umbrella plant , Wild lemon , Wild mandrake, American mandrake or "devil's apple".
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Blue Cohosh
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Between red oaks
Eastern US and Canada
Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), also known as Squaw Root, is a choice woodland wildflower treasured for its lacy, blue-green foliage and deep blue berries
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Aquilegia canadensis 
under dogwood, in meadow
A woodland classic, Columbine is one of our most popular plants for shady areas.The appearance of the lush bluish green foliage in early spring is a sure sign that winter is finally over. Hummingbirds flock to the intricate red and yellow flowers for a sip of nectar in spring, when few other flowers are available. Prefers well-drained sites and will actually thrive in dry, rocky soil in medium shade.This versatile plant also blooms profusely in full sun in a rich garden soil. Grows one to three feet tall. Plant a patch of Columbine and create a hummingbird haven!
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Early Meadowrue
Thalictrum dioicum
Several in western fringe of woods
One of the first spring wildflowers, Early Meadowrue is covered with dainty white and gold flowers that are suspended above lovely, lacy blue-green foliage. Reaching a height of two to four feet, the foliage alone serves as an excellent focal point in the woodland. Plant two feet apart, in groups of three to five to create a stunning background for other shadeloving plants.
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White Doll's Eyes
Actaea alba 
Western edge of woods
Bright white berries and lush foliage make this plant a true woodland standout! Grows one to three feet tall. Plant with early-blooming woodland flowers to create season-long interest! Requires a rich soil with plenty of humus.
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Sharp-Leaved Hepatica
Hepatica acutiloba
Woods near ivory sedge
Sharp-lobed hepatica is found in most states east of the Mississippi River. Extending from Ontario, Quebec, and Maine, it proceeds south through the eastern United States to Missouri, Georgia, and Alabama.
Sharp Leaved Hepatica is a woodland wildflower. The bright blue to pink flowers serve as an important early spring flower for many different pollinators. The mottled foliage is typically evergreen.Planting six bare-root specimens April '13; hope to create a small sea of them with the ivory sedge just east of the big central white oak on west edge of woods
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Pasque Flower
Anemone patens
This species is native to both North America and Eurasia. Habitats include hill prairies, gravel prairies, and barrens with scant woody vegetation
The very first prairie flower of spring, Pasque Flower is a signal that winter’s icy grip is loosening on the land. Delicate white to lavender flowers emerge before the leaves, often just after the snow has melted. The silvery seedheads are almost as attractive as the flowers. Much sought after by rock gardeners, this is a perfect plant for dry sandy and gravelly soils. Pasque Flower does best in slightly alkaline soil, with a pH between 7.0 and 8.0. This plant requires excellent drainage, it should be grown in rocky and sandy soils that never experience standing water. In Illinois, Pasque Flower is an uncommon plant that occurs only in extreme northern Illinois. It has been exterminated from many areas because of modern development.
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Bleeding heart
Dicentra spectabilis
Woods & under serviceberry
(Both red and white variants) This name comes from the appearance of the pink flower, which resembles the shape of a heart with a drop of blood descending. All parts of this plant are poisonous if ingested.
Sanguinaria canadensis
With sedges along stone trail by red oaks planted bare root 4/13
Bloodroot is native to eastern North America from Nova Scotia, Canada southward to Florida, United States, and west to Great Lakes and down the Mississippi embayment.
Bloodroot is a charming woodland wildflower with very unusual foliage and flower. The early spring flower rises from the center of its single curled leaf, opening in full sun, and closing at night. Bloodroot can grow up to 12 inches tall with a single lobed leaf on each stem. It is found growing in medium to moist shade along rocky slopes in woods, in ravines, and along bluffs. Like most members of the Poppy Family, Bloodroot lasts for a relatively short time. The red juice from the underground stem was used by Native Americans as a dye for baskets, clothing, and war paint, as well as for insect repellent. Bloodroot is a perennial, herbaceous flowering plant native to eastern North America. Currently most taxonomic treatments lump these different forms into one highly variable species. In bloodroot, the juice is red and poisonous. Plants are variable in leaf and flower shape and have in the past been separated out as different subspecies due to these variable shapes. Bloodroot stores sap in an orange colored rhizome, that grows shallowly under or at the soil surface. Over many years of growth, the branching rhizome can grow into a large colony. Plants start to bloom before the foliage unfolds in early spring and after blooming the leaves expand to their full size and go summer dormant in mid to late summer. Bloodroot is one of many plants whose seeds are spread by ants, a process called myrmecochory. The seeds have a fleshy organ called an elaiosome that attracts ants. The ants take the seeds to their nest, where they eat the elaiosomes, and put the seeds in their nest debris, where they are protected until they germinate. They also get the added bonus of growing in a medium made richer by the ant nest debris.
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Big Bluestem
Andropogon gerardi
in meadow at front
The most prevalent and widely distributed of all the prairie grasses, Big Bluestem was largely responsible for the formation of the famous prairie sod. Growing five to eight feet tall, it thrives on a tremendous range of soils, from wet, poorly-drained clay to dry open sand. In late August it produces its distinctive three-parted seedheads, which resemble a turkey foot. The lush green of the leaves and stems change with the first frost to an attractive reddish-bronze color that provides landscape interest well into the winter.
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Canada Wild Rye
Elymus canadensis
Several locations, mixed in meadows
This fast-growing prairie grass is not only attractive, it also serves as an excellent native nurse crop for prairie seedings. Plant at a rate of two to three pounds per acre with your prairie or meadow seed mix. It will mature in the first or second year, ahead of the longerlived prairie grasses and flowers.The beautiful curving seedheads on five foot tall stalks resemble cultivated rye. Grows on an incredible range of soils, including bare sand, gravel, raw clay subsoil and even damp soils. Excellent for inclusion in prairie mixes for revegetation of disturbed soils.
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Little Bluestem
Schizachyrium scoparium
South edge of front by big bluestem; behind serviceberry in back
Our best selling grass seed, for good reason.The blue-green foliage provides a great backdrop for the prairie flowers in summer, turning a striking crimson in fall.The fluffy silver seedheads add some real dazzle to the autumn landscape. A patch of Little Bluestem waving in the wind is truly a wondrous sight, resembling waves of the ocean on a bright and breezy fall day! A clump-forming grass, it combines nicely with prairie flowers. (Please see our Short Prairie Seed Mixes on p. 2.) Grows two to three feet tall on well-drained sand and loam and excels in dry sandy and rocky soils. Not recommended for heavy clay or damp soils. Plant in full sun for best results.
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Northern Sea Oats
Chasmanthium latifolium
various locations in meadows and edge of woods
One of the most ornamental of all our native grasses, Northern Sea Oats is remarkable for its extraordinary seedheads.The flat, wheat-like seeds catch sunlight in a most flattering way, especially in the evening and morning. Grows three to four feet tall, in full sun to moderate shade. Not a true prairie grass, it occurs in wooded flood plains and on rich, shaded slopes from Missouri to New Jersey and southwards. Performs admirably on well-drained to slightly damp soils, and is excellent for planting under the light shade of oaks and hickories. Looks great when planted along semi-shaded woodland edges.The seedheads are positively stunning in dried arrangements!
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Fox Sedge
Carex vulpinoidea
By stream and in ditch
The sedge lives in wet and seasonally wet habitat, and grows easily as a roadside weed. It produces clumps of stems up to a meter tall. The inflorescence is a dense, tangled cluster of many flower spikes up to about 10 centimeters long. Tolerates fluctuating water levels and periods of drying.
Palm leaf sedge
Carex muskingumensis
Edge of woods, joe pye meadow
This attractive sedge has glossy green leaves that branch out from the main stem similar to a Palm tree. Native to wooded lowlands, it does well in slightly damp soil in shady situations. Growing two feet high, it makes an excellent groundcover, especially on poorly drained clay soils. Plant one foot on center as a groundcover or use individually as a foliage accent plant.
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Fox sedge
Carex vulpinoidea
Front raingarden
It is native to North America, including most of Canada and the United States and part of Mexico
The sedge lives in wet and seasonally wet habitat. It produces clumps of stems up to a meter tall. The inflorescence is a dense, tangled cluster of many flower spikes up to about 10 centimeters long. Tolerates fluctuating water levels and periods of drying.
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Plantain-Leaved Sedge
Carex plantaginea
Along stone path by red oaks
Plantain-Leaved Sedge is a rare plant in Illinois; it was collected in Cook County over a century ago, and more recently it was discovered in Johnson County in southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Illinois lies at the western range limit of this species; it is more common in areas to the east of the state. Habitats include rich deciduous woodlands, wooded slopes and ravines, and canyon-like gorges in wooded mountainous areas. This sedge and many ferns prefer the same kinds of habitat and can be found growing in proximity to each other.
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Pennsylvania sedge
Carex pensylvanica
Woods by central path, by path to shed
Eastern US and Canada
Fine textured leaves and a creeping habit make this a great lawn alternative for dry soils in shade. Planted one foot on center, it will fill in to form a dense low growing turf that never needs mowing.
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Ivory sedge
Carex eburnea
woods behind central white oak
This truly unique sedge forms dense clumps of fine green leaves that reach only six inches tall. Perfect for planting between stone pavers and in dry or rocky soils in semi-shade. This distinctive plant grows in partial shade in limestone rocks in nature, and is extremely drought tolerant.
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Sideoats Grama
Bouteloua curtipendula
south edge in front, also by norway spruce
This short prairie grass has one of the most attractive flowers of any grass. Its bright purple and orange flowers lend it a special grace and beauty. It is equally appealing in seed, with small oat-like seeds suspended on one side of the stalk. Excellent for dry soils and well-drained loams, reaching two to three feet in height.Very effective when planted with other short prairie grasses and flowers in a meadow landscape.
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Maiden grass
Miscanthus sinensis
Front, several clumps, several varieties
The rapid growth, low mineral content and high biomass yield of Miscanthus make it a favorite choice as a biofuel.
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Prairie dropseed
Sporobolus heterolepis
South fenceline back yard, Front central bed
Dropseed rivals Little Bluestem in mass plantings. True hummocks in form, imagine a Fall landscape with these burnt orange clump grasses combined with brilliant red sumac.
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Yellow Indian grass
Sorghastrum nutans
Front central bed
This native perennial grass is 3-7' tall and unbranched. It was one of the dominant grasses of the prairies that covered much of Illinois during historical times.
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Dark green bullrush
scirpus atrovirens
Rain garden @ nw corner
Perennial herb with short, thick rhizomes. Up to 4.5 feet tall. Flowering - May - September. Habitat - Pond margins, sloughs, lakes, stream edges, ditches and wet depressions along roadsides and railroads. Origin - Native to U.S.
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Woolgrass bullrush
scirpus cyperinus
Rain garden @ nw corner
Robust perennial herbs with rhizomes found in Swamps, sloughs, around lakes, wet woods. Up to 5 ft tall, flowers July-October
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Native daylily
Hemerocallis fulva
drainage ditch, spots around trees in back
Daylilies have been cultivated by humans for centuries as a food source and also for their beauty. Today they are eaten in salads, soups, and dips for their color and flavor, which can be described as musty (1). The leaves, petals, and tubers are all edible. The petals can also be used to flavor meat dishes (3). Daylilies were noted as used by the Iroquois in their form of medical botany, however, the original use is no longer known (8). Other northern Native American groups used lilies as a food raw or cooked in soups (10).
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White fawnlily
Erythronium albidum
Woods, lawn near woods
The leaves of this small lily can be variable. Some leaves have heavy dark mottling, others have faint to no mottling. It grows in shaded areas of low woods, wooded slopes, ravines. The species is a good indicator that spring is arriving, being one of the first plants to bloom.
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Nodding wild onion
Allium cernuum
The wet soils and landscapes of the Chicago region once supported millions of these delicate plants. Flourishing profusely in undulating swells and swales of pre-settlement northeastern Illinois, nodding wild onion is now found primarily in protected nature preserves.
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Allium tricoccum
They are found across North America, from the U.S. state of South Carolina to Canada.
Also known as the spring onion, ramson, wild leek, and wild garlic, is an early spring vegetable, a perennial wild onion. It has a strong garlic-like odor and a pronounced onion flavor. Both the white lower leaf stalks and the broad green leaves are edible.They are popular in the cuisines of the rural upland South and in the Canadian province of Quebec when they emerge in the springtime. Ramps have a growing popularity in upscale restaurants throughout North America.
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White clintonia
Clintonia umbellulata
Woods (tentative) - need to confirm when it flowers
Mountainious region of the eastern United States into Canada. A low plant with a basal clump of broad, glossy, slightly pubescent leaves surrounding an 6-20 in. leafless stem topped by a cluster of nodding white flowers speckled with green and purple. Black, spherical berries follow the flowers. Long-lasting leaves remain green all summer, creating an excellent groundcover for shady spots.
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Blue bead lily
Clintonia borealis
The plant is native to the boreal forest in eastern North America, but is also found in other coniferous or mixed forests and in cool temperate maple forests. It is not found in open spaces, and only grows in the shade. The plant reproduces via seed or vegetatively by rhizomes. Flowering in May and June, it takes over a dozen years for a clone to establish and produce its first flower, 2 years of which are dedicated solely to germination.
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Prairie Trillium
Trillium recurvatum
The trillium is a simple, graceful perennial that is one of the most familiar and beloved of the spring woodland wildflowers. Leaves, petals and sepals all come in groups of three.
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Large flowered trillium
Trillium grandiflorum
Front woodland
Native to eastern North America, from northern Quebec to the southern parts of the United States through the Appalachian Mountains into northernmost Georgia and west to Minnesota. It also thrives on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. The plant is most common in rich deciduous and mixed upland forests. It is easily recognised by its attractive three-petaled white flowers, opening from the late spring to the early summer, that rise above a whorl of three, leaf-like bracts.
Shreve's blue flag iris
Iris virginica shrevei
Rain garden @ nw corner
Shreve’s Iris occurs throughout the eastern United States except for New England, Georgia, and Florida. Iris shrevei occurs as far west as Nebraska and south to Texas.
This moisture-loving iris has fragrant, blue violet flowers with falls crested in yellow and white. Narrow, bright green leaves often lie on the ground or in water. Shreve’s iris flowers in late spring. Flowers are a one- to two-flowered inflorescence on a stem that has one to two branches. The plants are up to three feet tall. The weakly arching green leaves are two to three feet long and are burgundy colored at the base. The leaves arise from shallowly rooted, large, branching rhizomes that can form large clumps.
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Solomon's Seal
Polygonatum commutatum
Solomon's Seal is a common plant that occurs in every county of Illinois . Habitats include moist to slightly dry deciduous woodlands, shady seeps, young flatwoods, woodland borders. Solomon's Seal occurs in both high quality and degraded woodlands. Faunal Associations: The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract various long-tongued bees. The Ruby-Throated Hummingbird also sucks nectar from the flowers. The berries are eaten by the Greater Prairie Chicken and various birds of the woodlands.
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Hairy Solomon's Seal
Polygonatum hirsutum
Solomon's Seal is a common plant that occurs in every county of Illinois . Habitats include moist to slightly dry deciduous woodlands, shady seeps, young flatwoods, woodland borders. Solomon's Seal occurs in both high quality and degraded woodlands. Faunal Associations: The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract various long-tongued bees. The Ruby-Throated Hummingbird also sucks nectar from the flowers. The berries are eaten by the Greater Prairie Chicken and various birds of the woodlands.
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Great Solomon's Seal
Polygonatum biflorum
The gracefully arching stems of Great Solomon’s Seal lend a strong architectural element to the prairie garden or meadow.The subtle, cream-colored flowers appear in May and June. In autumn, it’s deep purple berries put on a real show.The attractive foliage turns a striking gold in fall and is reason enough to plant this long-lived denizen of prairies and open woodlands.
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Starry Solomon's Plume
Maianthemum racemosum
This tough guy can grow in dry, sandy soil in shade where few other plants can survive. One of its favorite habitats is oak woodlands at the edge of sand dunes.
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Canadian May-lily, False Lily-of-the-valley
Maianthemum canadense
A dominant understory perennial flowering plant, native to the sub-boreal conifer forests in Canada and the northern United States, and also in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia. It can be found growing under both evergreen and deciduous trees.
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Starry Solomon's-seal/False lily of the valley
Maianthemum stellatum
Throughout woods
It is a woodland herbaceous perennial plant growing to 50-90 cm tall, with alternate, oblong-lanceolate leaves 7-15 cm long and 3-6 cm broad. The flowers are produced on a 10-15 cm panicle, each flower with six white tepals 3-6 mm long blooming in late spring. The plants produce green fruits that are round and turn red in late summer.
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Solomon's Plume
Maianthemum racemosum
Plumes of white flowers grace the arching stems in spring, and the bright red berries provide interest in the fall. The seeds are a favorite of Ruffed Grouse. Spreads slowly by underground rhizomes to form attractive clumps. Grows in acid soils under oaks and pines.
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False Solomon's-seal/Canada mayflower
Maianthemum racemosum
This tough guy can grow in dry, sandy soil in shade where few other plants can survive. One of its favorite habitats is oak woodlands at the edge of sand dunes.
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Lily of the valley
Convallaria majalis var. montana
Edge of woods
C. majalis is a herbaceous perennial plant that forms extensive colonies by spreading underground stems called rhizomes. The stems grow to 15-30 cm tall, with one or two leaves 10-25 cm long, flowering stems have two leaves and a raceme of 5-15 flowers on the stem apex. The flowers are white tepals (rarely pink), bell-shaped, 5-10 mm diameter, and sweetly scented; flowering is in late spring, in mild winters in early March. All parts, including the berries, of the Lily of the Valley are highly poisonous.
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Ohio spiderwort
Tradescantia ohiensis
North meadow back yard
Ohio spiderwort, or bluejacket spiderwort, is a native plant about 2 feet tall. The plant blooms from May to July. The light violet to blue-violet flowers open up during the morning and close by the afternoon in sunny weather, but remain open longer on cloudy days.
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Pagoda dogwood
Cornus alternifolia
five specimens along woods edge
It is a small deciduous tree growing to 8 m (rarely 10 m) tall, with a trunk up to 15 cm diameter, and the branches developing in characteristic flat layers separated by gaps. Cornus alternifolia produces small cream colored flowers with four small petals. It bears fruit similar to berries with a blackish blue color. These fruits grow 8-10 mm across.
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Flowering dogwood
Cornus florida
Back yard, south edge, midway
Cornus florida (Flowering Dogwood, syn. Benthamidia florida (L.) Spach) is a species of dogwood native to eastern North America, from southern Maine west to southern Ontario and eastern Kansas, and south to northern Florida and eastern Texas and also in Illinois, with a disjunct population in eastern Mexico in Nuevo León and Veracruz.
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Mock Orange
Philadelphus (species unk)
Hedge south edge of front yard
They are named "mock-orange" in reference to their flowers, which in wild species look somewhat similar to those of oranges and lemons (Citrus) at first glance, and smell of orange flowers and jasmine (Jasminum).
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Virginia Bluebells
Mertensia virginica
norhtwest corner of woods, east of red oaks
This beloved woodland wildflower is a true harbinger of spring! The distinctive bluish-pink flowers appear soon after the snows of winter retreat northward. This long-lived perennial expands slowly to form beautiful clumps that return year after year.Grows one to two feet tall in rich, slightly moist soil.
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Cinnamon ferns
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum
North side & by front porch
This fern forms huge clonal colonies in swampy areas. These ferns form massive rootstocks with densely-matted, wiry roots. This root mass is an excellent substrate for many epiphytal plants. Recent research on this family has significantly changed our understanding of the relationships of its species. Recent research indicates O. cinnamomeum is actually the most anciently-derived species of the family Osmundaceae.
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Mugo Pine White Pine Dwarf Alberta Spruce Colorado Blue Spruce Norway Spruce Canadian Yew Thuja Green Giant Jack in the pulpit Culver's Root
Mayapple Blue Cohosh Columbine Early Meadowrue White Doll's Eyes Sharp-Leaved Hepatica Pasque Flower Bleeding heart Bloodroot
Golden Alexander Rattlesnake Master Calico Aster Cupplant Prairie dock Compass plant Spotted Joe Pye weed Sweet Joe Pye Weed Black eyed susan
Brown eyed susan Narrow-leaved purple coneflower Yellow coneflower Purple coneflower Pale purple coneflower Balsam ragwort White Snakeroot Japanese Spurge Fire pink
Pagoda dogwood Flowering dogwood Mock Orange Azalea Sp? Rhododendron 'Rosem Elegans' Shooting star Garden Phlox Moss Phlox White Wild Indigo
Cream False Indigo Wild Senna Butterfly weed Common milkweed Marsh milkweed Wild Geranium butterfly bush Allegheny monkeyflower Violets
Cat mint (catnip) Wild bergamot Obedient Plant Forsythia 'Northern gold' Blue vervain Labrador Violet Labrador Violet Rose of Sharon Serviceberry sp?
Black Cherry Fort Sheridan Hawthorn Queen-of-the-Prairie Maple Leaved Alum Root Ditch Stonecrop Big Bluestem Canada Wild Rye Little Bluestem Northern Sea Oats
Pennsylvania sedge Ivory sedge Fox sedge Fox Sedge Palm leaf sedge Plantain-Leaved Sedge Sideoats Grama Maiden grass Prairie dropseed
Yellow Indian grass New Jersey tea Woolgrass bullrush Dark green bullrush Virginia Bluebells Native daylily White fawnlily Ramp Nodding wild onion
Blue bead lily White clintonia Prairie Trillium Large flowered trillium Shreve's blue flag iris Red Maple Boxelder Norway Maple Silver maple
White oak Bur oak Northern red oak Pignut Hickory Sweet Fern Solomon's Seal Hairy Solomon's Seal Great Solomon's Seal Solomon's Plume
Starry Solomon's Plume False Solomon's-seal/Canada mayflower Starry Solomon's-seal/False lily of the valley Canadian May-lily, False Lily-of-the-valley Lily of the valley Ohio spiderwort Small's penstemon Penstemon White turtlehead
Cinnamon ferns